What is Internal Family Systems Therapy?

Internal Family Systems (IFS) is a therapeutic approach developed by Dr. Richard Schwartz in the 1980s. It is a model of psychotherapy that aims to help individuals understand and manage their internal emotional and cognitive conflicts. IFS is based on the idea that individuals have various “parts” within themselves, each with its own distinct thoughts, feelings, and roles. These parts can be in harmony or conflict with each other, leading to emotional distress and psychological struggles.

IFS therapy is used to address a wide range of emotional and psychological issues, including trauma, anxiety, depression, and more. It provides a structured and compassionate approach for individuals to explore their inner world, gain insight into their behavior and emotions, and ultimately find healing for emotional wounds and internal conflicts.

Key principles and concepts of Internal Family Systems therapy include:


In IFS, the “Self” represents the core, authentic aspect of an individual. It is characterized by qualities like compassion, curiosity, clarity, and calmness. The goal of IFS therapy is to help clients access their Self, as it is seen as the healing and guiding force within. This involves cultivating self-compassion, self-awareness, and self-acceptance. When the Self is in a leadership role, it can guide and heal the wounded parts.


Individuals are believed to have various “parts” or subpersonalities within themselves. Each part has its own unique beliefs, emotions, and motivations. Some parts may be protective, trying to shield the individual from pain or trauma, while others may hold unprocessed emotions or beliefs. Parts are often unconsciously driven to protect the system and keep one safe.

  • Exiles: Exiles are the wounded and vulnerable parts of an individual that carry painful memories and emotions, often from adverse childhood experiences or trauma. These exiled parts are often hidden or suppressed from consciousness to avoid emotional pain and prevent further harm.
  • Managers: Managers are protective parts that try to keep the exiled parts hidden and prevent them from experiencing further harm. They aim to keep the individual safe and functioning in the world. They often engage in planning, controlling, and avoiding situations that could activate exiles. They often exhibit behaviors like perfectionism, self-criticism, and control to maintain order and safety.
  • Firefighters: Firefighter parts are more impulsive and reactive. These extreme and, often destructive parts, emerge as survival strategies in the midst of trauma and adverse childhood experiences. When emotional distress becomes overwhelming, these parts may engage in self-destructive behaviors, such as addictions, to cope with, distract, numb or extinguish the emotional pain.

Trauma Work

IFS can be used in trauma therapy to help clients process and heal from traumatic experiences by working with the protective and wounded parts involved.

Self-Compassion and Curiosity

IFS encourages self-compassion and curiosity as individuals explore and interact with their internal parts. Clients are taught to approach their inner world with non-judgment and understanding.

Inner Dialogue

IFS therapy involves facilitating an internal dialogue between these different parts of the self. This dialogue helps individuals understand the intentions and needs of each part and works toward integrating them in a balanced and harmonious way.

Reparenting and Integration

Clients may work on reparenting their inner child parts, providing the nurturing and care that may have been lacking in their early lives. The goal is to integrate these inner child parts into a healthier, more balanced self-system.

Releasing Burdens

IFS therapists work with clients to release the burdens (extreme beliefs and feelings) carried by exiled and protective parts, allowing them to heal and integrate into the Self. This process is often referred to as “unburdening.”

Internal Harmony

The aim of IFS therapy is to help individuals achieve internal harmony, where Self is restored as the natural leader of the system and the various parts work together in a balanced way, supporting the person’s overall well-being and functioning.

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